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People's Revolution in Ecuador
forwarded by Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz

From: marlon@pulsar.org.ec (Marlon Carrion)


I will try to send an analysis on the indigenous movement this week end. Everything depends on how things develop. The situation is tense, but of great human value. The indigena (they actually prefer being called indios because indigena is an anthropological term) transmit an enormous energy and their courage is incredible.

If anything was to happen tonight or tomorrow morning I'll send something.

article in Spanish available: www.amarc.org/pulsar (+ pictures !!)

Thursday 20.1.2000 - 14:00 h

Ecuador: Indigenas will attempt to take the National Parliament.
By Marlon Carrion C.

Indigenas are meeting in a General Meeting before walking down on the National Parliament in Quito

Quito, Ecuador.- Today Thursday at noon, thousands of indigenas currently protesting and demanding president Jamil Mahuad to resign decided to surround the National Parliament.

The police and military started immediately deploying barbed wire fences, anti-riot vans and some tanks. At this moment, there are more than a thousand policemen and soldiers heavily armed guarding the Parliament.

There was a rumour that during this afternoon, the indigenas will try to take the area of the National Parliament. The military and police said they would never allow that. This lead many people to think the confrontation could be a bloody one.

Miguel Luco, indigena leader and ex-deputy for this sector, said that it would be very regrettable that the military shed the blood of the people instead of supporting the movement who wants the resignation of the president who has plundered the country to the benefit of the big bankers.

The tension rose when a military armed helicopters and one from the police flew very close to the buildings close to the Peoples Parliament and to the Arbolito park where a large amount of indigenas are based.

Miguel Lluco asked the international community, the Red Cross and the embassies of friend countries present in Quito, the humanitarian organizations to remain in alert and to come to the Parliament in order to prevent the men in uniforms to undertake any violent action against the indigenas who are totally disarmed. (Ec/QR/Po-Pi-Mt/Pp-Cs/mc)

Date: Fri, 21 Jan 2000 11:15:17 -0500
Subject: (en) [Ecuador]"Two ways left for the men in uniform: to struggle alongside the people or to be the assassins!"

"Two ways left for the men in uniform:
to struggle alongside the people or to be the assassins!"

This sentence was heard during the Indian attempt to take the National Congress of Ecuador in Quito. The uprising continues and a blood bath is feared. The Indians seek the help of the army but warn that their struggle is one of resistance and they will keep fighting as long as necessary. The army ensures it won't allow the Congress to be taken by the Indians. This and the Presidential House have been cordonned-off with barbed-wire, antiriot cars and tanks.

Wanna see with your own eyes some of the events in Ecuador? Wanna see young men with guns raising the red-and-black flag? The "red tie" of the indian marches (red as their ponchos) in Quito? The menacing attitude of the army and the barbed-wire fences around the Congress and the Presidential House? Thousands of Indians facing the army in Guayas and Portoviejo, armed only with sticks?

You can find this pictures and more info (in Spanish) at:

http://www.amarc.org/pulsar/ and http://www.hoy.com.ec/


Date: Fri, 21 Jan 2000 11:15:13 -0500
Subject: (en) Revolt in Ecuador: the intensification of the struggle.

This is another attempt to summarize and update in English the available information about the revolt in Ecuador. It was made with the information found at:


As already revealed several days ago by Blanca Chancoso (CONAIE, main indian organization calling for the uprising) this movement is increasing its intensity day by day:

- -the Indians struggle is planned as a long-term resistance struggle and they will continue it for weeks, months and years if necessary in order to rebuild the nation on the basis of the people's power. As R. Ulcuango (vicepresident of the CONAIE) said, if they resisted 500
years of oppresion they can very well resist several months more.

- -the goal is a new economic and political order, far from neoliberalism and based on the Indian and Popular Parliament, indian leaders stated.

- -20,000 to 30,000 Indians are already in Quito. Thousands of them tried to seize the National Congress around noon, Thursday. The police used "stunning bombs" (trans.?) in an attempt to avoid the Indians reaching the Congress. The Indians managed to gather
there. Three helicopters flew grazing the Indians. They were finally dispersed by the army and the police, who made use of tear gas. Then, the Indians blocked all the adjacent streets and remained there all the night. Shortage of foot is starting among the Indians in Quito.

- -the rumour that the Indians will keep trying to take the Congress was followed by the rumour that the army will never allow this to happen. Thus, a blood bath is feared.

- -the Indians are appealing the army (many of the soldiers are also Indians) to support them. An indian leader said that the Indians of Ecuador have been traditionally non-violent in their actions and that any act of violence will be the result of a provocation by the army or the police.

- -the army has called the people to fight for their rights but respecting the Constitution and the laws. They ensure their compromise to warrant the democratic institutions and the juridical order.

- -the Parliament of the Peoples of Ecuador (Quito) dictated the first 10 decrets: suspension of the state of emergency; derogation of the "dolarization"; criminal prosecution of president Mahuad; citizen actions against corruption; unrecognizement of the Penal Code;freezing of the fares for public services....

- -in Portoviejo there are severe riots, sometimes violent. 4000 Indians took the streets requiring the resignation of the president, the Congress representatives and the judges. They attempted to take the Governor's residence. There have been acts of violence, including the use of molotov's bombs.

- -the FUT (Frente Unitario de los Trabajadores- United Front of the Workers) will call next week for a general strike nation-wide and for demonstrations in Quito to reclaim the resignation of the three powers of the state.

- -the president has announced an increase in the salary of the workers of private companies (nothing for public companies up to now). This would allow the basic salary for these workers to increase from 47$/month to around 60$/month. The average family needs around 200 $/month for the basic expenses.

- -300 soldiers took the state-owned refinery in Esmeraldas to reclaim the end of the strike of the oil workers. The strike continues, though, and the workers demand the soldiers to abandon the refinery. Meanwhile, the Popular Parliament of the Amazonia declares that the oil wells have been taken by the Indians and the workers ensure there will be a nation-wide cut-off of fuel and a stop of the exportations.

- -Last Thursday around 50,000 Indians completely blocked the roads in the province of Chimborazo. The army is talking of a "red tie" because of the color of the indian ponchos in the crowds.

- -According to some reports, there are 350 people arrested and 25 people injured. Representatives of Human Rights organizations declared that under the state of emergency several laws are being applied that are against the American Convention for the Human Rights.

Date: Fri, 21 Jan 2000 11:15:23 -0500
Subject: (ca) [Ecuador]"!Al pueblo uniformado le quedan dos caminos, luchar con el pueblo o ser los asesinos!"

"!Al pueblo uniformado le quedan dos caminos,
luchar con el pueblo o ser los asesinos!"

Esta frase se escucho durante el intento por parte de los indios de tomar el edificio del Congreso Nacional de Ecuador en Quito. El levantamiento continua y se teme un bano de sangre. Los indios buscan el apoyo del ejercito pero advierten que su lucha es de resistencia y seguiran la lucha el tiempo necesario. El ejercito asegura que no permitira la toma del Congreso (que, como el Palacio Presidencial) ha sido acordonado por ejercito y policia con alambres de espino, carros antidisturbios y tanquetas.

?Quieres ver con tus propios ojos algo de lo que sucede en Ecuador? ?Quieres ver a jovenes armados enarbolando la bandera roja y negra? ?La "marea roja" (por el color de los ponchos de los indios) en las marchas en Quito? ?La actitud amenazante del ejercito y las alambradas que rodean la sede del Congreso y de la Presidencia? ?miles de indios encarando en Guayas y Portoviejo al ejercito armados solo con palos?

Puedes encontrar esas imagenes y mucha informacion mas en:

http://www.amarc.org/pulsar/ y http://www.hoy.com.ec/


Date: Fri, 21 Jan 2000 13:06:58 -0500
From: "el desaparecido" <
Subject: (ca) [ecuador] levantamiento continua - enfrentamientos

marlon@pulsar.org.ec (Marlon Carrion)
Date sent: Fri, 21 Jan 2000 08:18:54 -0500

Agencia Informativa Pulsar
Informacion para America Latina via Internet

Ecuador: Indigenas con 507 anos de ira contenida.
Levantamiento nacional continua.
Por Marlon Carrion C.

QUITO, Ecuador.- El dia de ayer en horas de la tarde y noche los miles de indigenas que acordonaron el Parlamento Nacional no permitieron ni el ingreso, peor la salida de personas. Algunos indigenas maltrataron a oficinistas que intentaban romper el cerco.

Al menos unos 230 empleados y 3 magistrados de la Corte Suprema de Justicia, del Parlamento y la Contraloria General del Estados y otras dependencias publicas no pudieron regresar a sus hogares, ya que el cordon humano se los impedia.

De nada valio la intervencion de la Cruz Roja y de los dirigentes mismos de los indigenas. Quienes formaron el cerco al Parlamento dijeron que lamentablemente tienen que hacer esto para demostrar que no cederan ante la militarizacion en todo el pais.

Cuando la policia apostada en los alrededores del Parlamento intentaron abrir un camino para que salga el personal de oficinas, los indigenas reaccionaron y se produjo un fuerte enfrentamiento.

En Guayaquil, puerto principal y capital economica del Ecuador, se realizo en la noche de este jueves una multitudinaria marcha de antorchas. Se considera que en ella estuvieron unas 30 mil personas de los sectores pobres de la ciudad, vendedores ambulantes, trabajadores petroleros, profesores y organizaciones de mujeres y estudiantes. Esta marcha respaldo el levantamiento indigena.

En Quito, aproximadamente a las 3 de la madrugada de este viernes, los indigenas intentaron tomarse el Parlamento Nacional. Las barreras de alambres de puas conectados a detonantes de gases lacrimogenos no los detuvieron. Se produjo un nuevo enfrentamiento con los militares. Los uniformados tuvieron que disparar al aire para detener a los indigenas. Los manifestantes no portan ninguna arma, solo palos.

Al cierre de esta nota, los indigenas avanzaron hacia las instalaciones del Banco Central, ubicado a 9 cuadras del Palacio de Gobierno. Ahi bloquearon las vias y se estan enfrentando a la policia. El objetivo seria llegar a la casa de gobierno.

El cierre de vias en el pais es total. En la amazonia campesinos y trabajadores petroleros procedieron a quemar un auto que atropello a una marcha de protesta. En Quito en la Superintendencia de Bancos exploto una bomba de bajo poder. Los lideres indigenas dijeron que su movimiento no tiene ni balas peor bombas. Asimismo, pidieron atencion a la ciudadania, pues podria tratarse de autoatentados del gobierno para justificar su represion. (Ec/QR/Po-Pi/Cs-Pp/mc)

Date: Fri, 21 Jan 2000 13:07:00 -0500
From: "el desaparecido" <
Subject: (ca) Colombia - URGENTE territorio de los U'was invadido por OXY

- - porfavor difunda y actue -

historia : los U'was son un pueblo indigena colombiano. El gobierno de Colombia le concedio permiso a una multinacional (OXY) para la extraccion de petroleo en la tierra de los U'was. Los U'wa declararon que cometeran suicida de masa entes de ver sus tierras violadas. Unos 250 U'was estan hace varias semanas en occupacion permanente del sitio. Al fin de este llamado urgente hay un articulo con mas explicaciones sobre el contexto politico y direcciones de contacto.

De: Censat Agua Viva <censat@colnodo.apc.org>
Fecha: Jueves 20 de Enero de 2000 9:12 PM

Date: Fri, 21 Jan 2000 13:06:59 -0500
From: "Francisco" <
Subject: (ca) dos noticias de Pulsar sobre Ecuador [Huelga y Toma del Congreso]

Agencia Informativa Pulsar
Informacion de America Latina y el Caribe via Internet

Ecuador: Trabajadores anuncian huelga nacional para que renuncie Mahuad.
Por Pablo Teran P.

LOCUTOR QUITO, Ecuador.- El Frente Unitario de los Trabajadores, FUT, convocara a una huelga nacional para la proxima semana. La huelga nacional sera para exigir la revocatoria de mandato de los 3 poderes del Estado. Sera un Congreso de los Trabajadores ecuatorianos el que decida el dia de esta huelga nacional.

LOCUTORA Como una medida previa a la realizacion de la huelga nacional, los trabajadores ecuatorianos realizaran en Quito un marcha nacional con la presencia de delegaciones de las 21 provincial ecuatorianas.

LOCUTORA Fausto Dutan, dirigente del Frente Unitario de los Trabajadores, dijo que tanto la marcha como la huelga tienen como eje principal exigir la salida de los 3 poderes del Estado. Dijo que estas medidas se daran para castigar la corrupcion y conformar un gobierno de salvacion nacional.

LOCUTOR Mientras los trabajadores ecuatorianos mantienen su protesta y exigen la renuncia de Mahuad, el Presidente anuncio que firmara un decreto que permita bajar las tasas de interes. El proposito del Presidente ecuatoriano es permitir la realizacion de transacciones financieras que al momento se encuentran limitadas.

LOCUTORA Por su parte, El Ministro de Finanzas de Ecuador anuncio que el sector privado incrementaria los sueldos y salarios en un porcentaje del 25 y 30 por ciento para de los empleados de este sector. Para el sector publico, el Gobierno ecuatoriano aun no anuncia ningun incremento.

LOCUTOR Al momento, los trabajadores de Ecuador tienen un salario minimo vital de 4 dolares que junto a compensaciones salariales llega a unos 47 dolares. De darse el incremento en el sector privado, los sueldos y salarios de los ecuatorianos se elevarian a 60 dolares, mientras la canasta basica familiar supera los 200 dolares.

LOCUTORA Este jueves se mantuvo la protesta de los movimientos sociales de Ecuador. Se mantiene un levantamiento indigena y popular y otros sectores sociales anunciaron que se sumarian a la protesta contra el Gobierno. Asimismo, las autoridades mantienen el Estado de Emergencia que limita los derechos civiles de los ciudadanos.(Ec/QR/Po/Cs/pt).


Ecuador: Indigenas mantienen toma del Congreso.
Por Amanda Pinto

LOCUTOR QUITO, Ecuador.- Miles de indigenas mantienen rodeada la sede del Congreso Nacional. La toma del lugar se dio a mediodia de este jueves. Alli permanecieron por varios minutos en donde animaron su protesta con danzas. Luego la policia los desalojo con gases lacrimogenos.

LOCUTORA Posteriormente, los indigenas se reagruparon y bloquearon las calles aledanas al Congreso, Corte Suprema de Justicia y Contraloria de la nacion, ubicadas en el mismo sector. Los indigenas permanecieron en el lugar durante toda la noche.

LOCUTOR Salvador Quishpe, dirigente de la Confederacion de Nacionalidades Indigenas del Ecuador, dijo a Pulsar que los indigenas y organizaciones sociales que cercaron el Congreso, no se moveran del lugar.

LOCUTORA Anuncio que para evitar el cansancio durante la noche se cambiaron constantemente los grupos de personas que rodean los organismos estatales.

LOCUTOR Dijo que estan en Quito 20 mil indigenas y que mientras unos regresan a sus comunidades, otros llegan a la capital. Indico que este viernes llegara un numeroso grupo desde la provincia de Cotopaxi.

LOCUTORA Quishpe dijo que cada dia organizaciones de las ciudades se suman a las protestas y que la paralizacion se fortalece. Ademas, informo que continuan las conversaciones con los militares y la Iglesia catolica para pedir apoyo a las demandas del levantamiento.

LOCUTOR Ante la advertencia del Presidente Jamil Mahuad en el sentido de que si las manifestaciones se vuelven violentas, la policia y fuerzas armadas dejaran su actitud vigilante para adoptar otra, Salvador Quishpe dijo que el levantamiento es pacifico.

LOCUTORA Recordo que a lo largo de la historia los indigenas han actuado en forma pacifica y advirtio que si se da algun acto violento sera porque la policia o el ejercito lo han provocado. (Ec/QR-YZ/Po/Cs/ap)

20.1. 2000


The Levantamiento de los Pueblos (Uprising of the Peoples), which began this Saturday, the 15th, is turning into a great volcano with many craters burning with the discontent of the populace at large and indigenous people.

Thousands of indigenous people are blocking roadways, as they flow along roads connecting villages and inter-provincial roads en route to fortify the Toma de Quito (Takeover of Quito) and of other main cities. Thirty-five thousand members of the public forces bolstered by their violence and racism have not been able to stop us.

Dr. Mahuad, who has felt cornered by the large groups holding economic power, is now cornered and fenced in by his own tactics, barbed wire, tanks, military and police cordons and, most important, tens of thousands of discontented citizens.

His bureaucrats said we will not have the strength to call the people to action, that we don't have sufficient backing, that the struggle will peter out and that we will go home without accomplishing anything. That comes from arrogance and a feeling of self-sufficiency and servility towards his big money bosses, tyrants who with their economic policies have exercised the most criminal State terrorism in our history.

Dr. Mahuad, his bureaucrats and political cronies, whose mouths are stuffed with words about democracy, are daily closing in on absoutely NO popular support. If they really were democratic, they would respond to the voice of the people and resign; but that is not happening, as they are committed to defending their business enterprises and those of their friends who financed their electoral campaigns with thousands of dollars.

Direct participation of varied sectors of people living in the cities is extensive. There are not enough streets to hold the overflowing river of men, women and elderly, all of us aspiring to fashion a State and a society that is pluralistic, just, equitable and sovereign.

We are beginning to receive international backing for our Levantamiento de los Pueblos, as Dr. Mahuad soon will be receiving letters rejecting his repressive and anti-democratic stance.

The time for our peoples is nigh, for the good of all Ecuadorans, because we are real, one word, one voice, one thought, one heart and one fist.

Report of 20 January 2000

Roads to Cuenca and Zamora are closed. Various sectors of the populace marching in the city.

Roads closed. Huge marches in Cuenca.

Total blockade. Meetings of local parliaments continue. Markets out of provisions.

Roads blocked. In San Andres, the Army represses with bullets and bombs. Alausi reports meetings and total blockades, with hundreds participating. No vehicles are circulating.

At the exit to Chambo there is brutal repression by the military against our indigenous brothers.

Evangelical churches are joining the uprising, pointing out the posture of the national leaders, who have sold out to the Government.

In Riobamba more than 15,000 indigenous people are marching in the city.

They have managed to get back the vehicles requisitioned to transport people and produce destined for the takeover of Quito. The Governor committed himself to not stop the marches and blockades. Mayorista Market closed.

A huge march of 5,000 indigenous people inundates the city of Guaranda with university students, villagers and professionals participating.

Total closure. Markets out of provisions. Marches in Latacunga.

More and more indigenous people arriving to consolidate the takeover of Quito. Enormous marches taking place. Retired military, students, workers, and villagers joining and giving their support to our struggles. Main access roads to the Historic District blocked. National Congress cordoned off by thousands of indigenous people. University students organize marches from the outskirts of the city to Quito.

All roads closed. The parliament of Imbabura decrees closure of the markets, and the produce of anyone who does not comply will be confiscated and destined for feeding the thousands of indigenous peoples at the taking of Quito.

All roads closed. The municipal offices of Canton Mira have been seized.

Blockades have begun. Our organization ZAMASQUIJAT has reached an agreement with the transport drivers, who are joining in the uprising. Roads are closed.

Paralysis that began several days ago continues. All roads are closed. Gas and fuel supplies have run out.

Total blockade. Great mobilization. The organization of Indigenous Peoples of Pastaza is preparing for an indigenous march within the next few days. Students, professionals and people living in rural areas will take part to add reinforcement to the taking of Quito and they will walk 400 kilometers. The Nacionalidad Shuar de Pastaza is participating actively in the uprising and endorses the demands expressed.

All roads blocked. Meetings of local parliaments continue, along with marches in all cantons.

All roads blocked. Marches of people from all strata of society in Lago Agrio.

Marches in the city more numerous with each passing day. The Federacion Provincial de Barrios de Esmeraldas (Provincial Federation of Neighborhoods of Esmeraldas) in observance of the order of the Federacion Nacional de Barrios del Ecuador, is coordinating actions to fortify the uprising of the people.

Four thousand people marched starting at dawn. Approximately 500 more indigenous people will join these marches during the day today. Since 4:00 a.m. all roads have been blocked. Five people wounded by bullets fired by police of Quevedo.

Marches in the morning and an evening march by torchlight.

Date: Sat, 22 Jan 2000 04:02:23 -0500
From: "el desaparecido" <
Subject: (en) [ecuador] Contingent of Military Backs Seizing of National Congress

> www.amarc.org/pulsar Friday, 2l January 2000, 10:20 a.m.

Ecuador: Contingent of Military Backs Seizing of National Congress (LAST MINUTE)
By Pablo Teran P.

QUITO, Ecuador.- A contingent of Ecuadoran military under the command of Colonel Lucio Gutierrez supports the seizing of the Congreso Nacional (National Congress) carried out early in the morning today by the Ecuadoran indigenous people. The head of the Armed Forces made clear that this support does not include the entire military forces of Ecuador.

The Ecuadoran indigenous people took the Congreso Nacional around 10:00 local time this Friday. Among their first statements, the indigeneous people, rural citizens, groups of the populace at large and a contingent of military declared the formation of a Junta de Salvacion Nacional (Junta for National Salvation).

Colonel Lucio Gutierrez, who heads the Junta de Salvacion Nacional, in his first decree disavowed the three powers of State in Ecuador: executive, legislative and judicial. At the same time, the Junta gave an order preventing President Jamil Mahuad from leaving the country.

The President of the indigenous peoples, Antonio Vargas, was put in charge of the presidency of the Congreso Nacional.

Meanwhile, it was learned through official channels that President Mahuad remains holed up in the Palacio de Gobierno (Government Palace) without making any pronouncements. The environs of the Palacio de Gobierno are being protected by a strong contingent of military and by snipers posted on the tall buildings in the area.

Colonel Lucio Gutierrez, who presides over the Junta de Salvacion Nacional, is highly respected within the Armed Forces. In addition, he hold several degrees, which bear witness to his academic training. Gutierrez's responsibility would be to govern Ecuador during the transition to a democratic form of government.

According to last minute reports, the General de Divison of the Army of Ecuador, General Carlos Moncayo Gallegos, would have given the order for the military that was guarding the Congreso to withdraw and allow the indigenous peoples to take over the Congreso Nacional peacefully. Moncayo said that the takeover is a manifestation of national discontent.

Meanwhile, Juan Jose Pons, up to now President of the Congreso Nacional, called for a special congressional meeting at the offices of the Central Bank in Guayaquil on Saturday at 10:00. Juan Jose Pons disavowed the military contingent that supported the indigenous people in their takeover of the Congreso of Ecuador.

While this was taking place at the Congreso Nacional, another group was attempting to get to the Presidencia of Ecuador (the residence of the President). It has been confirmed that President Jamil Mahuad remains inside the Palacio de Gobierno, uninformed about the social protest of some 30,000 indigenous people present in Ecuador.


Date: Sat, 22 Jan 2000 04:05:35 -0500
From: "el desaparecido" <
Subject: (en) [ecuador] uprising continues - confrontations

A - I N F O S N E W S S E R V I C E

21.1.00 - From Spanish: www.amarc.org/pulsar
Ecuador: Indigenous people with 507 years of restrained anger. National Mobilization continues.
By Marlon Carrion

QUITO, Ecuador - Yesterday during the afternoon and the night the thousands of indigenous people who circled the National Parliament did not allow people to enter or leave the area. A few indigenous people mis-treated some office workers who attempted to break through the cordon.

At least 230 employees and 3 judges of the Supreme Court, Parliament and the State Comptroller Generals office and other public agencies could not return home, because of the human cordon preventing their exit.

Red Cross and even the leaders of the indigenous movement had no luck intervening in the situation. Those who have formed the human cordon around Parliament have said that unfortunately they had to do this to demonstrate that they will not back down in face of the total militarization of the country.

When the police posted themselves around the Parliament with the intention of opening a road so that the personnel from the offices could leave, the indigenous people reacted confrontationally.

In Guayaquil, the principal port and economic capital of Ecuador, on Thursday night there was a march of a multitude of anarchists. It is considered that there were approximately 30,000 people from the poor areas of the city, travelling vendors, petroleum workers, professors and women's and students organizations. This march served to back up the indigenous mobilization.

In Quito, at approximately 3 am this Friday, the Indigenous people tried to take-over the National Parliament. The steel barriers connected to tear gas detonators did not deter them. This produced a new confrontation with the military. Those in uniform had to shoot in the air to detain the indigenous. The protesters had no weapons.

At the end of this note, the indigenous were advancing on the buildings of the Central Bank, 9 blocks away from the Governmental palace. There they blocked the roads and were met by the police. The objective is to reach the house of government.

The close of the roads in the country is total. In the Amazonian regions campesinos and petroleum workers proceeded to burn a car that blocked the path of a protest march. In Quito the Superintendent of Banks exploded a low grade bomb. The indigenous leaders said that their movement has no ammunition, least of all bombs. Accordingly they requested caution from the citizenry whose inattention could be used by the government to justify their repression.

Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz
1663 18th Street
San Francisco CA 94107

Publications: RED DIRT (published by Verso, 1997)

Email: rdunbaro@csuhayward.edu

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